Assistant Professor, Department of Human Physiology
Ph.D. University of California, San Diego
B.A Tufts University
Ian Greenhouse’s research examines how humans initiate and cancel movement. His lab combines behavioral testing with electrophysiology, neuroimaging, and brain stimulation in healthy and clinical populations. His current research explores the relationship between the inhibitory neurochemical gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and motor performance.
Dr. Greenhouse earned his BA in Psychology at Tufts University and his Ph.D. at the University of California, San Diego. He completed postdoctoral training at the University of California, Berkeley. He joined the Department of Human Physiology at the University of Oregon in the Fall of 2017.
A single mechanism for global and selective response inhibition under the influence of motor preparation.
J Neurosci. 2020 Sep 14;:
Authors: Raud L, Huster RJ, Ivry RB, Labruna L, Messel MS, Greenhouse I
In our everyday behavior, we frequently cancel one movement while continuing others. Two competing models have been suggested for the cancellation of such specific actions: 1) the abrupt engagement of a unitary global inhibitory mechanism followed by reinitiation of the continuing actions, or 2) a balance between distinct global and selective inhibitory mechanisms. To evaluate these models, we examined behavioral and physiological markers of proactive control, motor preparation, and response inhibition using a combination of behavioral task performance measures, electromyography, electroencephalography, and motor evoked potentials elicited with transcranial magnetic stimulation. Healthy human participants of either sex performed two versions of a stop signal task with cues incorporating proactive control: A unimanual task involving the initiation and inhibition of a single response, and a bimanual task involving the selective stopping of one of two prepared responses. Stopping latencies, motor evoked potentials, and frontal beta power (13-20 Hz) did not differ between the uni- and bimanual tasks. However, evidence for selective proactive control before stopping was manifest in the bimanual condition as changes in corticomotor excitability, mu (9-14 Hz), and beta (15-25 Hz) oscillations over sensorimotor cortex. Altogether, our results favor the recruitment of a single inhibitory stopping mechanism with the net behavioral output depending on the levels of action-specific motor preparation.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTResponse inhibition is a core function of cognitive flexibility and movement control. Previous research has suggested separate mechanisms for selective and global inhibition, yet the evidence is inconclusive. Another line of research has examined the influence of preparation for action stopping, or what is called proactive control, on stopping performance, yet the neural mechanisms underlying this interaction are unknown. We combined transcranial magnetic stimulation, electroencephalography, electromyography and behavioral measures to compare selective and global inhibition models and to investigate markers of proactive control. The results favor a single inhibitory mechanism over separate selective and global mechanisms, but indicate a vital role for preceding motor activity in determining whether and which actions will be stopped.
PMID: 32928884 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Comparison of Multivendor Single-Voxel MR Spectroscopy Data Acquired in Healthy Brain at 26 Sites.
Radiology. 2020 04;295(1):171-180
Authors: Považan M, Mikkelsen M, Berrington A, Bhattacharyya PK, Brix MK, Buur PF, Cecil KM, Chan KL, Chen DYT, Craven AR, Cuypers K, Dacko M, Duncan NW, Dydak U, Edmondson DA, Ende G, Ersland L, Forbes MA, Gao F, Greenhouse I, Harris AD, He N, Heba S, Hoggard N, Hsu TW, Jansen JFA, Kangarlu A, Lange T, Lebel RM, Li Y, Lin CE, Liou JK, Lirng JF, Liu F, Long JR, Ma R, Maes C, Moreno-Ortega M, Murray SO, Noah S, Noeske R, Noseworthy MD, Oeltzschner G, Porges EC, Prisciandaro JJ, Puts NAJ, Roberts TPL, Sack M, Sailasuta N, Saleh MG, Schallmo MP, Simard N, Stoffers D, Swinnen SP, Tegenthoff M, Truong P, Wang G, Wilkinson ID, Wittsack HJ, Woods AJ, Xu H, Yan F, Zhang C, Zipunnikov V, Zöllner HJ, Edden RAE, Barker PB
Background The hardware and software differences between MR vendors and individual sites influence the quantification of MR spectroscopy data. An analysis of a large data set may help to better understand sources of the total variance in quantified metabolite levels. Purpose To compare multisite quantitative brain MR spectroscopy data acquired in healthy participants at 26 sites by using the vendor-supplied single-voxel point-resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) sequence. Materials and Methods An MR spectroscopy protocol to acquire short-echo-time PRESS data from the midparietal region of the brain was disseminated to 26 research sites operating 3.0-T MR scanners from three different vendors. In this prospective study, healthy participants were scanned between July 2016 and December 2017. Data were analyzed by using software with simulated basis sets customized for each vendor implementation. The proportion of total variance attributed to vendor-, site-, and participant-related effects was estimated by using a linear mixed-effects model. P values were derived through parametric bootstrapping of the linear mixed-effects models (denoted Pboot). Results In total, 296 participants (mean age, 26 years ± 4.6; 155 women and 141 men) were scanned. Good-quality data were recorded from all sites, as evidenced by a consistent linewidth of N-acetylaspartate (range, 4.4-5.0 Hz), signal-to-noise ratio (range, 174-289), and low Cramér-Rao lower bounds (≤5%) for all of the major metabolites. Among the major metabolites, no vendor effects were found for levels of myo-inositol (Pboot > .90), N-acetylaspartate and N-acetylaspartylglutamate (Pboot = .13), or glutamate and glutamine (Pboot = .11). Among the smaller resonances, no vendor effects were found for ascorbate (Pboot = .08), aspartate (Pboot > .90), glutathione (Pboot > .90), or lactate (Pboot = .28). Conclusion Multisite multivendor single-voxel MR spectroscopy studies performed at 3.0 T can yield results that are coherent across vendors, provided that vendor differences in pulse sequence implementation are accounted for in data analysis. However, the site-related effects on variability were more profound and suggest the need for further standardization of spectroscopic protocols. © RSNA, 2020 Online supplemental material is available for this article.
PMID: 32043950 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]