Clifford Kentros

Professor, Kavli Institute for Systems Neuroscience
Member, ION

Ph.D. New York University Medical Center
B.A. New College


Research Interests: Cellular and molecular basis of memory.

Overview: What changes in your brain when you learn something?  Lesion studies have determined that a highly conserved structure called the hippocampus is required for memory acquisition in mammals, including humans.  My laboratory is interested in how neurons in the hippocampus and related brain areas reflect experience.  We use two distinct but complementary approaches to this goal:  1) recording neurons from awake, behaving rodents; and 2) generating genetically-modified mice capable of expressing transgenes in particular neuronal cell types relevant to learning and memory.  Combining the former with the latter enables the neural analog of the approach used by engineers to investigate electrical circuits:  basically, one records from one circuit element (i.e. neuronal cell type) while manipulating the activity of others.  In this way we can explore the transformation of information through the circuitry underlying learning and memory.


Related Articles

Functional properties of stellate cells in medial entorhinal cortex layer II.

Elife. 2018 09 14;7:

Authors: Rowland DC, Obenhaus HA, Skytøen ER, Zhang Q, Kentros CG, Moser EI, Moser MB

Layer II of the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) contains two principal cell types: pyramidal cells and stellate cells. Accumulating evidence suggests that these two cell types have distinct molecular profiles, physiological properties, and connectivity. The observations hint at a fundamental functional difference between the two cell populations but conclusions have been mixed. Here, we used a tTA-based transgenic mouse line to drive expression of ArchT, an optogenetic silencer, specifically in stellate cells. We were able to optogenetically identify stellate cells and characterize their firing properties in freely moving mice. The stellate cell population included cells from a range of functional cell classes. Roughly one in four of the tagged cells were grid cells, suggesting that stellate cells contribute not only to path-integration-based representation of self-location but also have other functions. The data support observations suggesting that grid cells are not the sole determinant of place cell firing.

PMID: 30215597 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Related Articles

TU-Tagging: A Method for Identifying Layer-Enriched Neuronal Genes in Developing Mouse Visual Cortex.

eNeuro. 2017 Sep-Oct;4(5):

Authors: Tomorsky J, DeBlander L, Kentros CG, Doe CQ, Niell CM

Thiouracil (TU)-tagging is an intersectional method for covalently labeling newly transcribed RNAs within specific cell types. Cell type specificity is generated through targeted transgenic expression of the enzyme uracil phosphoribosyl transferase (UPRT); temporal specificity is generated through a pulse of the modified uracil analog 4TU. This technique has been applied in mouse using a Cre-dependent UPRT transgene, CA>GFPstop>HA-UPRT, to profile RNAs in endothelial cells, but it remained untested whether 4TU can cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) or whether this transgene can be used to purify neuronal RNAs. Here, we crossed the CA>GFPstop>HA-UPRT transgenic mouse to a Sepw1-cre line to express UPRT in layer 2/3 of visual cortex or to an Nr5a1-cre line to express UPRT in layer 4 of visual cortex. We purified thiol-tagged mRNA from both genotypes at postnatal day (P)12, as well as from wild-type (WT) mice not expressing UPRT (background control). We found that a comparison of Sepw1-purified RNA to WT or Nr5a1-purified RNA allowed us to identify genes enriched in layer 2/3 of visual cortex. Here, we show that Cre-dependent UPRT expression can be used to purify cell type-specific mRNA from the intact mouse brain and provide the first evidence that 4TU can cross the BBB to label RNA in vivo.

PMID: 29085897 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Related Articles

A Novel Mechanism for the Grid-to-Place Cell Transformation Revealed by Transgenic Depolarization of Medial Entorhinal Cortex Layer II.

Neuron. 2017 Mar 22;93(6):1480-1492.e6

Authors: Kanter BR, Lykken CM, Avesar D, Weible A, Dickinson J, Dunn B, Borgesius NZ, Roudi Y, Kentros CG

The spatial receptive fields of neurons in medial entorhinal cortex layer II (MECII) and in the hippocampus suggest general and environment-specific maps of space, respectively. However, the relationship between these receptive fields remains unclear. We reversibly manipulated the activity of MECII neurons via chemogenetic receptors and compared the changes in downstream hippocampal place cells to those of neurons in MEC. Depolarization of MECII impaired spatial memory and elicited drastic changes in CA1 place cells in a familiar environment, similar to those seen during remapping between distinct environments, while hyperpolarization did not. In contrast, both manipulations altered the firing rate of MEC neurons without changing their firing locations. Interestingly, only depolarization caused significant changes in the relative firing rates of individual grid fields, reconfiguring the spatial input from MEC. This suggests a novel mechanism of hippocampal remapping whereby rate changes in MEC neurons lead to locational changes of hippocampal place fields.

PMID: 28334610 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Related Articles

Beyond the bolus: transgenic tools for investigating the neurophysiology of learning and memory.

Learn Mem. 2014 Oct;21(10):506-18

Authors: Lykken C, Kentros CG

Understanding the neural mechanisms underlying learning and memory in the entorhinal-hippocampal circuit is a central challenge of systems neuroscience. For more than 40 years, electrophysiological recordings in awake, behaving animals have been used to relate the receptive fields of neurons in this circuit to learning and memory. However, the vast majority of such studies are purely observational, as electrical, surgical, and pharmacological circuit manipulations are both challenging and relatively coarse, being unable to distinguish between specific classes of neurons. Recent advances in molecular genetic tools can overcome many of these limitations, enabling unprecedented control over neural activity in behaving animals. Expression of pharmaco- or optogenetic transgenes in cell-type-specific "driver" lines provides unparalleled anatomical and cell-type specificity, especially when delivered by viral complementation. Pharmacogenetic transgenes are specially designed neurotransmitter receptors exclusively activated by otherwise inactive synthetic ligands and have kinetics similar to traditional pharmacology. Optogenetic transgenes use light to control the membrane potential, and thereby operate at the millisecond timescale. Thus, activation of pharmacogenetic transgenes in specific neuronal cell types while recording from other parts of the circuit allows investigation of the role of those neurons in the steady state, whereas optogenetic transgenes allow one to determine the immediate network response.

PMID: 25225296 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Related Articles

Role of self-generated odor cues in contextual representation.

Hippocampus. 2014 Aug;24(8):1039-51

Authors: Aikath D, Weible AP, Rowland DC, Kentros CG

As first demonstrated in the patient H.M., the hippocampus is critically involved in forming episodic memories, the recall of "what" happened "where" and "when." In rodents, the clearest functional correlate of hippocampal primary neurons is the place field: a cell fires predominantly when the animal is in a specific part of the environment, typically defined relative to the available visuospatial cues. However, rodents have relatively poor visual acuity. Furthermore, they are highly adept at navigating in total darkness. This raises the question of how other sensory modalities might contribute to a hippocampal representation of an environment. Rodents have a highly developed olfactory system, suggesting that cues such as odor trails may be important. To test this, we familiarized mice to a visually cued environment over a number of days while maintaining odor cues. During familiarization, self-generated odor cues unique to each animal were collected by re-using absorbent paperboard flooring from one session to the next. Visual and odor cues were then put in conflict by counter-rotating the recording arena and the flooring. Perhaps surprisingly, place fields seemed to follow the visual cue rotation exclusively, raising the question of whether olfactory cues have any influence at all on a hippocampal spatial representation. However, subsequent removal of the familiar, self-generated odor cues severely disrupted both long-term stability and rotation to visual cues in a novel environment. Our data suggest that odor cues, in the absence of additional rule learning, do not provide a discriminative spatial signal that anchors place fields. Such cues do, however, become integral to the context over time and exert a powerful influence on the stability of its hippocampal representation.

PMID: 24753119 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Related Articles

Transgenically targeted rabies virus demonstrates a major monosynaptic projection from hippocampal area CA2 to medial entorhinal layer II neurons.

J Neurosci. 2013 Sep 11;33(37):14889-98

Authors: Rowland DC, Weible AP, Wickersham IR, Wu H, Mayford M, Witter MP, Kentros CG

The enormous potential of modern molecular neuroanatomical tools lies in their ability to determine the precise connectivity of the neuronal cell types comprising the innate circuitry of the brain. We used transgenically targeted viral tracing to identify the monosynaptic inputs to the projection neurons of layer II of medial entorhinal cortex (MEC-LII) in mice. These neurons are not only major inputs to the hippocampus, the structure most clearly implicated in learning and memory, they also are "grid cells." Here we address the question of what kinds of inputs are specifically targeting these MEC-LII cells. Cell-specific infection of MEC-LII with recombinant rabies virus results in unambiguous labeling of monosynaptic inputs. Furthermore, ratios of labeled neurons in different regions are largely consistent between animals, suggesting that label reflects density of innervation. While the results mostly confirm prior anatomical work, they also reveal a novel major direct input to MEC-LII from hippocampal pyramidal neurons. Interestingly, the vast majority of these direct hippocampal inputs arise not from the major hippocampal subfields of CA1 and CA3, but from area CA2, a region that has historically been thought to merely be a transitional zone between CA3 and CA1. We confirmed this unexpected result using conventional tracing techniques in both rats and mice.

PMID: 24027288 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Related Articles

Neural correlates of long-term object memory in the mouse anterior cingulate cortex.

J Neurosci. 2012 Apr 18;32(16):5598-608

Authors: Weible AP, Rowland DC, Monaghan CK, Wolfgang NT, Kentros CG

Damage to the hippocampal formation results in a profound temporally graded retrograde amnesia, implying that it is necessary for memory acquisition but not its long-term storage. It is therefore thought that memories are transferred from the hippocampus to the cortex for long-term storage in a process called systems consolidation (Dudai and Morris, 2000). Where in the cortex this occurs remains an open question. Recent work (Frankland et al., 2005; Vetere et al., 2011) suggests the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) as a likely candidate area, but there is little direct electrophysiological evidence to support this claim. Previously, we demonstrated object-associated firing correlates in caudal ACC during tests of recognition memory and described evidence of neuronal responses to where an object had been following a brief delay. However, long-term memory requires evidence of more durable representations. Here we examined the activity of ACC neurons while testing for long-term memory of an absent object. Mice explored two objects in an arena and then were returned 6 h later with one of the objects removed. Mice continued to explore where the object had been, demonstrating memory for that object. Remarkably, some ACC neurons continued to respond where the object had been, while others developed new responses in the absent object's location. The incidence of absent-object responses by ACC neurons was greatly increased with increased familiarization to the objects, and such responses were still evident 1 month later. These data strongly suggest that the ACC contains neural correlates of consolidated object/place association memory.

PMID: 22514321 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Related Articles

A stable hippocampal representation of a space requires its direct experience.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Aug 30;108(35):14654-8

Authors: Rowland DC, Yanovich Y, Kentros CG

In humans and other mammals, the hippocampus is critical for episodic memory, the autobiographical record of events, including where and when they happen. When one records from hippocampal pyramidal neurons in awake, behaving rodents, their most obvious firing correlate is the animal's position within a particular environment, earning them the name "place cells." When an animal explores a novel environment, its pyramidal neurons form their spatial receptive fields over a matter of minutes and are generally stable thereafter. This experience-dependent stabilization of place fields is therefore an attractive candidate neural correlate of the formation of hippocampal memory. However, precisely how the animal's experience of a context translates into stable place fields remains largely unclear. For instance, we still do not know whether observation of a space is sufficient to generate a stable hippocampal representation of that space because the animal must physically visit a spot to demonstrate which cells fire there. We circumvented this problem by comparing the relative stability of place fields of directly experienced space from merely observed space following blockade of NMDA receptors, which preferentially destabilizes newly generated place fields. This allowed us to determine whether place cells stably represent parts of the environment the animal sees, but does not actually occupy. We found that the formation of stable place fields clearly requires direct experience with a space. This suggests that place cells are part of an autobiographical record of events and their spatial context, consistent with providing the "where" information in episodic memory.

PMID: 21852575 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]