Professor, Department of Psychology
Ph.D. Cornell University
M.A. Simon Fraser University
B.A. University of British Columbia
Research Interests: Normal adults; neuroplasticity; development
Overview: Our broad goals are to study biological constraints and the role of input from the environment in the development of the human brain. We characterize the functional specializations of different neural systems in normal adults and take two broad approaches to the study of their development:
We compare cerebral organization in normal hearing, sighted, monolingual adults with that observed in adults who have had auditory or visual deprivation or who have had different language experience (neuroplasticity).
We study the changes in functional cerebral organization that occur as normally and abnormally developing infants and children attain different ages and behavioural milestones. We employ the event-related potential (ERP) techniques and structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in these studies.
Parasympathetic and sympathetic activity are associated with individual differences in neural indices of selective attention in adults.
Psychophysiology. 2018 Apr 06;:e13079
Authors: Giuliano RJ, Karns CM, Bell TA, Petersen S, Skowron EA, Neville HJ, Pakulak E
Multiple theoretical frameworks posit that interactions between the autonomic nervous system and higher-order neural networks are crucial for cognitive and emotion regulation. However, few studies have directly examined the relationship between measures of autonomic physiology and brain activity during cognitive tasks, and fewer studies have examined both the parasympathetic and sympathetic autonomic branches when doing so. Here, 93 adults completed an ERP auditory selective attention task concurrently with measures of parasympathetic activity (high-frequency heart rate variability; HF-HRV) and sympathetic activity (preejection period; PEP). We focus on the well-studied N1 ERP component to test for associations with baseline values of HF-HRV and PEP. Individuals with higher resting HF-HRV and shorter resting PEP showed larger effects of selective attention on their ERPs. Follow-up regression models demonstrated that HF-HRV and PEP accounted for unique variance in selective attention effects on N1 mean amplitude. These results are consistent with the neurovisceral integration model, such that greater parasympathetic activity is a marker of increased selective attention, as well as other theoretical models that emphasize the role of heightened sympathetic activity in more efficient attention-related processing. The present findings highlight the importance of autonomic physiology in the study of individual differences in neurocognitive function and, given the foundational role of selective attention across cognitive domains, suggest that both parasympathetic and sympathetic activity may be key to understanding variability in brain function across a variety of cognitive tasks.
PMID: 29624675 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Anterior and posterior erp rhyming effects in 3- to 5-year-old children.
Dev Cogn Neurosci. 2018 Mar 06;30:178-190
Authors: Andersson A, Sanders LD, Coch D, Karns CM, Neville HJ
During early literacy skills development, rhyming is an important indicator of the phonological precursors required for reading. To determine if neural signatures of rhyming are apparent in early childhood, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) from 3- to 5-year-old, preliterate children (N = 62) in an auditory prime-target nonword rhyming paradigm (e.g., bly-gry, blane-vox). Overall, nonrhyming targets elicited a larger negativity (N450) than rhyming targets over posterior regions. In contrast, rhyming targets elicited a larger negativity than nonrhyming targets over fronto-lateral sites. The amplitude of the two rhyming effects was correlated, such that a larger posterior effect occurred with a smaller anterior effect. To determine whether these neural signatures of rhyming related to phonological awareness, we divided the children into two groups based on phonological awareness scores while controlling for age and socioeconomic status. The posterior rhyming effect was stronger and more widely distributed in the group with better phonological awareness, whereas differences between groups for the anterior effect were small and not significant. This pattern of results suggests that the rhyme processes indexed by the anterior effect are developmental precursors to those indexed by the posterior effect. Overall, these findings demonstrate early establishment of distributed neurocognitive networks for rhyme processing.
PMID: 29554639 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]